Speech Disorders can affect both children and adults. Common speech disorders include articulation disorders, phonological disorders, and motor speech disorders.
Speech Sound Development
See below for sounds expected to be 90-100% mastered in English by two, three, four, and five years.
What is an Articulation Disorder?
Articulation is the production of individual sounds.
An Articulation Disorder is when a child has difficulty producing one or more individual sounds. When this happens a sound is often deleted, substituted, or distorted.
Articulation Therapy teaches a child how to correctly articulate or produce the individual sound and overtime how to generalize the correct production into words, phrases, and connected speech.
What is a Phonological Disorder?
Phonology is the system of speech sounds in a language and the rules for using and combining those sounds.
A Phonological Disorder is when a child makes predicable, rule based errors in their speech that impact more than one sound. A child with a phonological disorder is able to produce a sound in isolation but is not yet able to produce the sound in words.
Phonological Therapy teaches a child the rules for using and combining those sounds to form words. Children are taught to recognize sound contrasts at the word level.
What is a Motor Speech Disorder?
Motor Skills are functions of the body that are planned, sequenced, and performed using the nervous system, muscles, and brain.
A Motor Speech Disorder is when a child struggles to produce clear speech due to difficulty planning or executing speech movements.
Therapy for Motor Speech Disorders depends on the underlying cause. If neurological, therapy teaches a child how to sequence or “plan” continuous movement between sounds, syllables, and words. If neuromuscular, therapy teaches a child how to control and manage their speech production.